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[ 苏州翻译公司告诉你元旦的来源 ]

  苏州翻译公司告诉你中国元旦来源,元旦历来指的是农(夏、阴)历正月初一。“元旦”的“元”,指开始,是第一的意思,凡数之始称为“元”;“旦”,象形字,上面的“日”代表太阳,下面的“一”代表地平线。“旦”即太阳从地平线上冉冉升起,象征一日的开始。人们把“元”和“旦”两个字结合起来,就引申为新年开始的第一天。元旦又称“三元”,即岁之元、月之元、时之元。
  在汉语各地语言中有不同叫法,有叫“大年初一”的,有叫“大天初一”的,有叫“年初一”的,一般又叫“正月初一”。在中国,元旦已列入了法定假日。由于世界各国所处的经度位置不同,各国的时间也不同,因此,“元旦”的日期也有不同。中国是世界上第12个开始新年的国家。
  元旦,据说起于三皇五帝之一的颛顼,距今已有5000多年的历史。
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  中国元旦历来指的是夏历(农历、阴历)正月初一。正月初一的计算方法,在汉武帝时期以前也是很不统一的。因此,历代的元旦月、日也并不一致。夏朝的夏历以孟喜月(元月)为正月,商朝的殷历以腊月(十二月)为正月,周朝的周历以冬月(十一月)为正月。秦始皇统一中国后,又以阳春月(十月)为正月,即十月初一为元旦。
  从汉武帝起,规定孟喜月(元月)为正月,把孟喜月的第一天(夏历的正月初一)称为元旦,一直沿用到清朝末年。
  1912年1月13日,孙中山发布《临时大总统关于颁布历书令》,责成内务部编印新历书。随后又规定阳历(公历)1月1日为“新年”,但不叫“元旦”。
  这一年孙中山让出最高权力,袁世凯就任临时大总统。刚开始,袁世凯还表示遵循孙中山的一切政令,包括继续推行新历。于是,在中国就出现了两种历法体系,一种是官方推行的西洋阳历体系,作为公共行政、执法、国际交往的时间标准;一种是传统社会的农历体系,人们按习惯沿用,服务于农时与日常社会生活。当时,政府虽然强力推行新历法,但也考虑到民众生活的需要,采取调和折中的方式。
  1914年1月,民国政府的内务部在致袁世凯的呈文中提出:“拟请定阴历元旦为春节,端午为夏节,中秋为秋节,冬至为冬节。凡我国民均得休息,在公人员亦准给假一日。”袁世凯考虑到其他少数民族的习惯问题,只批准“元旦为春节”。由此,传统农历新年岁首被官方正式易名为“春节”,传统的“元旦”“新年”名称被安置在公历的1月1日这一天。
  1949年9月27日,中国人民政治协商会议第一届全体会议决议:“中华人民共和国纪年采用公元纪年法”,即是我们所说的阳历,为了区别农历和阳历两个新年,又鉴于农历二十四节气中的“立春”恰在农历新年的前后,因此便把农历正月初一改称为“春节”,阳历一月一日定为“元旦”,至此,元旦成为全国人民的欢乐节日。
  The Chinese New Year's day has always been referred to as the first month of the lunar calendar. The "Yuan" of "New Year's Day" means the beginning. It is the first meaning. The beginning of every number is called "Yuan"; "Dan", pictograph, the above "sun" represents the sun, and the next "one" represents the horizon. "Denier" is the sun rising from the horizon, symbolizing the beginning of a day. People combine the two words with "Yuan" and "denier" and extend it to the first day of the new year. New year's Day is also called "three yuan", that is, the yuan of the year, the yuan of the month, the yuan of the time.
  There are different names in Chinese around the language, called "Lunar New Year", called "big day", called "new year", and is called "a month earlier". In China, new year's day has been listed as a legal holiday. Because of the different location of the longitude and the time of different countries, the date of "New Year's Day" is different. China is the twelfth country in the world to start the new year.
  It is said that in the new year's day, Three Emperors and Five Sovereigns of Zhuanxu, which has a history of 5000 years.
  China new year has always refers to the lunar calendar (lunar calendar, lunar calendar) is at the beginning of a month. The method of calculation in the first month of the first month was very ununified before the period of Emperor Wudi. Therefore, the new year's Day is not consistent with the new year's day. The lunar calendar by Meng Xiyue (January) for the first month, the Shang Dynasty Yin calendar to the twelfth lunar month (December) for the first month, the week calendar in winter (November) for the first month. After the unification of China, Qin Shihuang took Yang Chunyue (October) as the first month, that is, the first year of the new year in the early October.
  From the emperor Meng Xiyue (January), provisions for the first month, the first day of Meng Xiyue (the first lunar month is called a new year's day), followed by the end of the Qing dynasty.
  In January 13, 1912, Sun Zhongshan published "on the issue of" order of almanac of temporary president, instructed the Ministry of the interior published new book. Then it was also stipulated that the calendar (Gregorian calendar) was "new year" in January 1st, but not "New Year's Day".
  This year Sun Zhongshan gave way to the highest power, and Yuan Shikai was a temporary president. At the beginning, Yuan Shikai also said Sun Zhongshan's decree all follow, including the continued implementation of the new calendar. So, in China there are two kinds of calendar system, one is the official implementation of the Western calendar system, as public administration, law enforcement, international communication standard time; one is the traditional Chinese social system, people use services to farming by habit, and daily social life. At that time, although the government started to implement the new law, but also take into account the needs of people's lives, take the way of compromise.
  In January 1914, the Ministry of internal affairs of the government of the Republic of China proposed to Yuan Shikai's report: "the Lunar New Year's day to please set for the Spring Festival, the Dragon Boat Festival for the summer festival, Mid Autumn Festival is Spring Festival, the winter solstice to winter. I have to rest where people are also on the first day of release, quasi public officers." Yuan Shikai, taking into account the customary problems of other ethnic minorities, only approved the "New Year's day for the Spring Festival". Thus, the traditional Lunar New Year at the beginning of the year was officially renamed the "Spring Festival", the traditional "new year" "new year" name was placed in January 1st of the Gregorian calendar that day.
  In September 27, 1949, the first plenary session of China people's Political Consultative Conference resolution: "People's Republic of China annals by the annals of the year", which is what we call the solar calendar, in order to distinguish the two lunar and solar calendar new year, the Lunar New Year twenty-four solar term in the "spring" just before the lunar new year, the the 1th day of the first month of the Chinese lunar calendar renamed the "Spring Festival" the Gregorian calendar in January 1st as a "new year" New Year's day, so far, has become the National People's festival of joy.